“An entirely different culture and an alien race:” Scandinavian Ukrainian encounters on the Canadian Prairies 1910-1940
ABSTRACT: While contacts between Scandinavia and Kievan Rus’ in recent history have been limited, and Scandinavian, and Scandinavian-Canadian attitudes to Ukrainians were long characterized by an aggressive hostility and racist stereotypes. The image of the “Galician” merged with stereotypes of Russians, which have a long tradition in Scandinavia and Germany. “Galicians” became synonymous with backwardness, social retardation and superstition. As a result of pressure to assimilate and competition for the same jobs, Scandinavian-Ukrainian relations in Canada became strained. These attitudes took a particularly aggressive form in the Scandinavian press in Canada. This article attempts to identify anti-Ukrainian themes in Scandinavian and Scandinavian-Canadian literature and assess their significance for the identity formation of the Scandinavians in Canada in the early 20th century.